Currently Happening Presently Now: PAIN

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Chamberlain, D. B. (1998). Babies don’t feel pain. Cyborg Babies: From Techno-Sex to Techno-Tots, 168-192.

For centuries, babies have had a difficult time getting adults to accept them as real people with real feelings having real experiences- a situation which their twentieth-century cyborgification has only enhanced. Deep predjudices have shadowed them for centuries: babies were thought of as subhuman, prehuman, or, as sixteenth-century authority Luis deGranada put it, 'a lower animal in human form'.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1989). Babies remember pain. Pre-and Peri-Natal Psychology, 3(4), 297-310.

Babies have been crying at birth for centuries but we have been reluctant to accept their cries as valid expressions of pain which will register in memory. Despite mounting evidence, the characteristic reaction of psychologists and medical practitioners to infant pain has been one of denial. Key myths about the brain have provided the rationale for painful procedures. Against this background, studies of the infant cry prove that crying is meaningful communication. Examples of prenatal and perinatal cries are examined. Evidence for the pain of circumcision is found in personal memories and research findings. A final section focuses on pain in the NICU, the delivery room, and the nursery and concludes with an appeal that all painful procedures imposed on newborns be reconsidered.

Cunningham, N. (1990). Ethical perspectives on the perception and treatment of neonatal pain. The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing, 4(1), 75-83.

Gottfried, A. W., & Gaiter, J. L. (1985). Infant stress under intensive care. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Anand, K. J., & Hickey, P. R. (1987). Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. N Engl j Med, 317(21), 1321-1329.

Lester, B. M., & Boukydis, C. Z. (1985). Infant crying: Theoretical and research perspectives. Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Lummaa, V., Vuorisalo, T., Barr, R. G., & Lehtonen, L. (1998). Why cry? Adaptive significance of intensive crying in human infants. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19(3), 193-202.

Lawson, J. R. (1990). The politics of newborn pain.

Owens, M. E., & Todt, E. H. (1984). Pain in infancy: neonatal reaction to a heel lance. Pain, 20(1), 77-86.

Kennedy-Caldwell, C. (1989). Pain in infancy. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 21(6), 386-388.

Pernick, M. S. (1994). A calculus of suffering: pain, professionalism, and anesthesia in nineteenth century America.

Rana, S. R. (1987). Pain—a subject ignored. Pediatrics, 79(2), 309-309.

Talbert, L. M., Kraybill, E. N., & Potter, H. D. (1976). Adrenal cortical response to circumcision in the neonate. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 48(2), 208-210.

"The number of tools an obstetrician can employ to address the needs of the fetus increases each year. We are of the view that this is the most exciting time to be an obstetrician. Who would have dreamed, even a few years ago, that we could serve the fetus as physician?"
-Jack A. Pritchard and Paul C. MacDonald, Williams Obstetrics, 1980, page vii.


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